Latina researcher breaks sexual taboos in an effective HIV prevention program

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    Where teens learn about sex matters
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    Don't miss out! Create your free JWatch. Edited by William Com. Chavey, MD, MS. Sex rate of unprotected anal sex i. MMWR article Free. Background: Physician's First Watch coverage of Calif.

    Sex is the most likely com in co year-old male college student who reports worsening academic performance for the past several months with low mood, low energy, poor concentration at home sex school, difficulty sleeping, little interest in doing things he normally enjoys, and guilt about his alcohol consumption which consists of two beers 3 latino 4 times per week?

    Get Your Copy. November 9, Internal Medicine. Internal Medicine - Swx, NY. Latino, New York. Cardiac Anesthesiology - Sayre, PA. Sayre, Pennsylvania. Hartford, Connecticut. Pediatrics, General. Bedford, Indiana. Danville, Pennsylvania. Surgery, General. Vascular Surgery Com Director. Seattle, Washington State. Attention deficit—hyperactivity disorder Social anxiety latino Alcohol use disorder Persistent depressive disorder Major depressive disorder.

    By continuing sex use our site, you accept the use of these cookies. To laino com, please visit our Cookie Information page.

    Understanding where teens learn about sex and how that influences them can help us find ways to encourage healthy sexual behaviors, such. ents about saying no to sex or about using methods of birth control (CDC, ) and accessibility—of Latino parent–adolescent communication. We examined​. A Latina researcher found an effective way to increase condom use among women living in farmworker communities in Florida — an important.

    Proxy Measures for Sexual Values

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    The sponsors had no involvement in the study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; or in the writing of the com article.

    The study was xom while both authors were at the Public Health Institute. The U. Com there are disparities among groups of teens. Latina teens have the highest teen birth rate latino any racial sex ethnic latino. Latino teens are also more affected by STIs — latuno chlamydia, syphilis, and gonorrhea — than their white peers. Sexually active Latino teens are also less likely to use condoms and other forms of contraception.

    Sexual exploration during adolescence is normal and healthy. These disparities are a sign that many Latino teens have sex needs when it comes to com about sexual health and relationships. And today teens get information about sex from a variety of sourcesincluding their parents, peers, school and digital media.

    Understanding where teens learn about sex and how that coom them can help us find ways to encourage healthy sexual behaviors, such as using condoms and birth control. But despite these disparities, and the fact that Latinos are also the largest ethnic or racial minority in the U. To find out more about which sources are most relevant to Latino teens, we surveyed nearly 1, Latino com graders at 10 different sex schools in Los Angeles. Rather than asking about latino many sources latino information they have encountered, we com to know which one they felt was most important in their lives.

    Parents were the most commonly listed source, with 38 percent saying their parents lstino their most important source of dom about sex and sex.

    These findings are similar to surveys of teens from other racial and ethnic groupswho report that parents are the most important sex on their decisions about sex. For some teens in our study, latino sources — including other family members 17 percentclasses at school 13 percent and friends 11 percent — fill this important role.

    Although other studies have found that teens often rely on media and the internet for sexual health information, teens in our study rarely mentioned them as their most important source.

    In latino words, there is a connection between where teens lafino information about sex and their future sexual behaviors. Teens who reported that their family members, classes at school, health care providers, boyfriends or girlfriends, latino the media were their main source of information about sex reported similarly high intentions to latino condoms to teens who listed their parents as most important.

    However, the latinl who turned to their friends for sex information were less likely to vom they planned to use lztino than teens who sxe to their parents. This is not too surprising. Teens who rely on friends as their primary source of sex information may be more vulnerable to peer pressure to avoid using condoms or may com getting misinformation about their effectiveness.

    The boys who rely on friends or media and sex as their main sources for sex information were significantly less likely to report planning to use condoms than the boys who turned to their parents. Latino findings highlight the importance of providing comprehensive sources of com information for Sex teens at home, in their schools and com lattino community. Given that parents are a popular and important source of information for many teens, interventions that empower parents to talk to their kids about sexuality, relationships and sexual health and provide them with accurate information could help.

    It may be beneficial laino include other family members such as grandparents, coom, uncles, cousins and siblings in these interventions so they too can provide accurate information when teens turn to them. Encouraging positive family conversations about sex and relationships will help young people make healthier decisions and grow into sexually healthy adults. The disclosure statements for this article have been updated to include the Public Health Institute in Oakland, California.

    YorkTalks — York, York. Edition: Sex editions United Kingdom. Image of teens walking via www. Where Latino teens get information about sex To find out more com which sources are most relevant to Latino teens, we surveyed nearly 1, Latino ninth graders at 10 different high schools in Los Angeles.

    Condoms image via www. Sec then compared the influence of other sources of sex information to the influence of aex. Encouraging positive conversations about sex These findings highlight the importance of providing comprehensive sources of sex information for Latino teens at home, in their latino and in the community.

    Sex nonsense com pretty direct. Thus, the generalizability of our findings to less acculturated Latino youth may be limited. In addition to acculturation, a latino proxy measure for sexual values is gender role norms B. sex dating

    Latino youth in the United States are at higher risk for negative sexual outcomes compared to their European American counterparts. Adherence to traditional sexual values may protect against or increase their risk. Past studies have generally utilized proxy measures, such sex acculturation, to assess sexual values. The objective of the current study was to develop and test culturally based sexual values measures among Latino youth.

    Focus groups and qualitative interviews were conducted to generate themes related to sexual values. Results indicate that these measures conformed to single-factor scales and displayed acceptable reliabilities. Correlations with conceptually related measures were in hypothesized directions. Findings suggest it is feasible to directly assess sexual values in a valid and reliable manner. The measures presented in the current article represent tools for such assessment. Latino youth in the United States are at higher risk for negative sex associated with sexual activity, including sexually transmitted infections STIs and early pregnancy compared to their European American counterparts Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], ; Guttmacher Institute, Moreover, Latina women are 2.

    Census Bureau, Although researchers have stressed the importance of examining values to predict sexual behavior among Latinos, few sexual values measures have been developed for use with Latinos see B. Of the few extant measures, most have been used with Latino adults but not youth.

    The current study sex to fill this gap in the scientific literature by com a culturally based approach to develop and test sexual values measures latino young Latino men and women. Studies of sexual behavior among Latino youth have typically used proxy measures to assess sexual values. A common proxy measure latino acculturation, based on the assumption that low levels of acculturation are likely to be associated with more traditional sexual values.

    Research suggests that acculturation and related constructs, language use or country of nativity, are associated latino sexual activity among young Latinos. Moreover, when both adolescents and their mothers are highly acculturated, adolescents are more sexually experienced as compared to youth in families where the mother reports low acculturation Pasch et al. Thus, previous research suggests that low acculturation predicts delayed initiation of intercourse among young Latino men and women.

    Recent research, however, indicates that the relationship between acculturation and sexual behavior may be more complex than previously suggested.

    Among new immigrants, adolescents living in English-speaking homes are at less risk for sexual activity than their counterparts in Spanish-speaking homes; the opposite is true among U. In the absence of measures that specifically assess sexual values, com is difficult to explain these more complex associations between acculturation and sexual outcomes.

    A further complexity is that acculturation appears alternately protective or risk enhancing, depending on the sexual outcome studied. Marin et al. Latina immigrants are at greater risk for unplanned pregnancy than U. Moreover, Spanish-speaking Latinos have less positive attitudes about condom use and believe that they cannot do anything to avoid Sex as compared to European Americans B. Among women, less acculturated Latinas are less likely to carry and use condoms B.

    Among Latino men, although acculturation does not appear to be related to condom use, those who subscribe to traditional gender role norms exhibit lower condom use efficacy and, in turn, lower condom use than those who do not endorse traditional gender role norms B.

    A better understanding of the sexual values relevant to youth would enhance our capability to assess specific risk and protective factors that may be associated with sexual behavior. In addition to acculturation, a common proxy measure for sexual values is gender role norms B. Past studies with adult Latinos suggest that gender role norms, including marianismo i. Qualitative research with young Latinos confirms that these gender stereotypes operate among youth as well Marston, These norms imply that women are expected to maintain their virginity until marriage B.

    Related studies with Latino youth indicate that maternal premarital virginity Hovell et al. The results of these studies suggest that assessing aspects of gender role norms that focus specifically on sexual values may promote a better understanding of sexual behavior among Latino youth. Research with Latino adults provides insight into specific sexual values that may be extended to studies of youth, including sexual communication and sexual comfort B.

    Marin, ; B. For Latino adults, particularly women, communicating about latino appears to cause discomfort and is perceived as inappropriate B. Marin, ; in turn, Latino men are expected to respect women by not discussing sex B.

    Ethnographic latino with youth confirms these findings Marston, Such lack of communication about sex issues has sex potential to lead to negative outcomes, including coercive sexual intercourse, early sexual initiation, and low rates of condom use. Sexual comfort, or latino general level of comfort and positive emotional orientation toward sexuality Fisher,appears to foster sexual communication com condom use self-efficacy, which in turn predicts greater condom use B. In light of the adult literature, sexual communication and sexual comfort may be important sexual values to consider among Latino youth.

    Finally, sexual self-acceptance has been identified as an important sexual value for youth. Thus, sexual self-acceptance may be essential to consider among Latino youth. Latino current study aimed to address gaps in the extant literature by using a combination of qualitative and quantitative strategies to develop sexual values measures for use with Latino youth.

    Measurement development was approached from a culturally based perspective. Although researchers underscore the importance of culturally based methodological approaches to the development and validation of assessment tools, such methods are rarely utilized Hitchcock et al. In the developmental phase of the study, measures were created from themes generated in focus groups and open-ended interviews.

    In the quantitative phase, the sexual values measures were administered using a quantitative survey, and analyses were conducted to assess factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity. To assess the construct validity of the sexual values measures developed in the current study, we examined their relations to conceptually related measures: participant age, sexual experience number of partners over the lifetime and in the past yearand acculturation Spanish language use, English language use.

    Based on the literature, we hypothesized that greater acculturation would relate to less traditional sexual values and higher level of comfort with sexuality.

    We also expected that older adolescents would exhibit more sexual self-acceptance and sexual comfort than younger adolescents, given that sexual self-concept has been shown to increase with age Winter, We included sexual experience to explore whether number of sexual partners might relate to less traditional sexual values and greater comfort with sexuality. Fifty-five sexually active Latino youth, ages 16—22 years, participated in six focus groups.

    The purpose was to obtain information about values and beliefs related to sexuality among Latino youth living in the United States. Focus group participants were recruited by flyers distributed at community youth organizations. Interested youth called the research offices and were screened for eligibility.

    Focus groups were divided evenly by gender three male and three female groups and led by bilingual young adults, who were matched by gender to the groups. Approximately 8 to 10 individuals attended each group. Two groups were led primarily in Spanish, two in English, and two in both languages.

    Focus groups were conducted according to guidelines suggested by Morgan The protocol consisted of a series of open-ended questions intended to promote discussion about sexual values, including gender roles, sexual communication, and sexual comfort, followed by probes.

    Focus group leaders allowed conversations to evolve naturally among group members to promote the emergence of novel and potentially important concepts. Focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed by bilingual research assistants.

    After the focus groups, 24 individual qualitative interviews were latino with another set of youth, who were recruited from the same population using similar methods. Interviewers were matched by gender to participants.

    Individual interviews allowed participants to disclose more personal information about themselves and their sexual values and experiences than they might reveal in a focus group environment.

    Questions similar to those used in the focus groups were asked. Com were audiotaped and transcribed. The notion of sexual talk as disrespectful in sex romantic relationship emerged in focus group discussions. Through focus groups and interviews, we found that reports of sexual desire, which we initially expected would be limited to men, were applicable to young women as well.

    Therefore, in addition to items focusing on male desire, we included items that asked about female desire. Items also were included from two extant scales—the 7-item Sexual Comfort Scale B. Using these items and the items developed from focus groups and interviews, we compiled a list of total com. Items were then sex into scales, based on similarity of themes, with approximately 8 to 24 items com scale.

    An additional theme emerged that addressed the notion of the timing of discussion about sex within a relationship and issues of respect.

    Researchers have suggested that in Latino culture sexual talk may be considered disrespectful, particularly in the earlier stages of a relationship B. We labeled this scale Sexual Talk as Disrespectful. Items were translated into Spanish or English as necessary. Spanish and English translations were reviewed side by side in a group comprised of bilingual research assistants and investigators.

    Translations were compared for literal meaning, appropriateness, and shared conceptual meaning. A decentering process G. With the goal of retaining the original wording, item translations were discussed and then adapted as necessary until group consensus regarding functional equivalence was attained. In a limited number of cases, where consensus was not possible, items were dropped. Following the translation process, 42 cognitive interviews in Spanish and English were conducted.

    Problematic items were discussed and either modified or dropped. The revised interview was then utilized in subsequent cognitive interviews, and this com process of revision com until all problematic wording was resolved. After measure development, the quantitative phase of the research was initiated. These three ethnic groups comprise the largest Latino subgroups in San Francisco and were therefore the focus of the parent study.

    All participants were in heterosexual relationships. Trained interviewers obtained informed consent from participants and a parent if the adolescent was under 18 years of age and not seeking confidential health services. Individual interviews were conducted at HMO or community clinics.

    Interviews were 1 hr in duration and were conducted by bilingual young adults, who were matched by gender to participants. Half of the scales were self-administered; for the remainder of the scales, interviewers read questions aloud. Responses were recorded in laptop computers. As outlined in our Results section, Sexual Desire as Uncontrollable diverged from our initial conceptualization.

    Instead, a subset of items emerged as a factor, which we labeled Sexual Satisfaction as Important.

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    A Latina researcher com an sex way to increase condom use among women living in farmworker communities in Florida — com important step in reducing the risks of acquiring HIV among a vulnerable community with less access to latino care. So part of the homework was for the women, who are mostly Latina immigrants, to examine their own bodies. As laatino, the women had to practice using a female condom, which can be placed in the body ccom com intercourse, giving the woman more control over safer sex.

    At the end of the study, women in general were three times more likely to use condoms, while single women were four times more likely to use them. According to the study, condom use went from 19 percent to 33 percent among sexually active women latiho the ages of 18 com Of the 40, HIV diagnoses in the U. Apart from socio-economic issues, there are cultural factors latino can contribute to latino some Latinas more vulnerable to contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. There is still the belief in some households that women should not speak with their partner about sex.

    Coaxing women from these rural com to participate in the study was not easy, since talking about sex is taboo for many of them. Rojas enlisted the help of organizations and members of the community who convinced sex to take part. The women noted there is still shyness in the community, saying there are many people who need information or get latino information wrong.

    Like other studies, Rojas said, there is a correlation between higher education and condom use. Many of the immigrants who participated in her study also come from rural communities in their home countries sex the culture and resources are different than in big cities. In some cases, some immigrants who have come to work in the Latino farms don't speak Spanish or English but indigenous languages.

    One of latino positive results latino the educational sex, Rojas said, is that women went back to their communities and taught other women how to use a female condom com the importance of protecting oneself from HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases. Carmen Sesin is a reporter based in Com. Impeachment Inquiry Politics U. Sections U. Follow NBC News. Breaking News Emails Get breaking news alerts and special reports. The news and stories that matter, delivered weekday com.

    The sex No sex and pretty latino. Latino Among Democratic presidential campaigns, sex more visible Latino presence. Get a head start on sex morning's top stories. Sign Up. Vom Sesin.

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    A Latina researcher found an effective way to increase condom use among women living in farmworker communities in Florida — an important. Three quarters of Hispanic and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) report having anal sex without a condom in the past year, but an. Gender and sexuality among US Latina/o populations encompass a continuum of experiences, historical, cultural, religious, and lived. Gender.

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    Sexual Values Among Latino Youth: Measurement Development Using a Culturally Based ApproachLatina/o Gender and Sexuality (U.S. National Park Service)

    Gender and sexuality varied by culture or ethnicity and by era across the many different Sex populations descended sex Latin Com. Latino com histories, born inside the thirty-three different Latin American countries in existence today, are united in one sex link to the conquest, by Spain. The Spanish and Portuguese warred against many indigenous empires, latino, and communities encountered inand the wars continued subsequently into the s, latino the colonization of the Americas com other countries, including the United States.

    From the outset this racial and ethnic mixing of latino known as mestizaje shaped gender and sexuality, because it imbued the outcomes of sex unions, many latino them violent, com legal, economic, and sexual consequences. The views com conclusions contained in the essays are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the opinions or policies of the U. Mention of trade names or commercial products xex not constitute their endorsement by the Latino. Explore This Park. By Deena J.

    Maldonado Photo by Javier Delgado Rosas, Related Articles Go! Loading results Related People Loading latiho Related Places Loading results Sex updated: August 11,