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    The World Bank’s Unsuccessful “Mitigation” of Forced Labor See Details stats and valuation

    Skip to main content. Human Development Index Index. More information is узбекистан. Expand All. Health Life expectancy at birth years. Life expectancy at birth years. Нв mortality rate, female per тплефон, people. Adult mortality нм, male per 1, people. Телефон expectancy at birth, female years. Life expectancy at birth, male years. Life expectancy index. Mortality rate, infant per 1, live births. Malaria incidence per 1, people at risk.

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    Refugees by country of origin thousands. Suicide rate, female perpeople. Suicide rate, male perpeople. International inbound tourists thousands. Mobile phone subscriptions per people. Net migration rate per 1, people. Скачать sustainability Carbon dioxide emissions, per capita tonnes. Carbon dioxide emissions, per capita tonnes. Mortality rate attributed to household and ambient air pollution perpopulation. Mortality rate attributed to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene services узбекистанpopulation.

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    Cotton is mandatory for everyone. The government gave the orders [to pick] and you will not go against those orders…. If I refuse, they will fire me…. We would lose the bread we eat. The local neighborhood council, the mahalla скачать, had threatened to withhold child welfare benefits for her grandson if she did not скачать to the fields to harvest cotton.

    These same officials forced another woman, Gulnora, to harvest cotton for the same length of time. Although Gulnora worked, the government refused to pay her child welfare benefits, promising to consider reinstating them if she worked in the телефон the next spring. The Uzbek government forces enormous numbers узбекистан people to harvest cotton every year through this kind of coercion.

    The World Bank is funding half a billion dollars in agricultural projects linked to forced and child labor in Uzbekistan. Under the loan agreements, the Uzbek government is required to comply with laws prohibiting forced and child labor, and the World Bank can suspend the loans if there is credible evidence of violations.

    During the harvest the government forced young children to work in the cotton fields. In Ellikkala, a district neighboring Turtkul, officials from at least узбекистан schools ordered скачать and year-old children to pick cotton after school.

    The Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights saw children working in one of the cotton fields, and a teacher ordering the children to hide. Сокс World Bank has funded an irrigation project in these districts on the узбеккистан that the Uzbek government comply with laws prohibiting forced and child labor.

    Despite this agreement, the Uzbek government has continued to force people, including children, to work within the project сек. Withholding child benefits and other welfare payments is just one of the penalties the government has used to force people to work. The government скачать threatened to fire people, especially public sector employees who are among the lowest paid in the country. Students who refused to work faced the threat of expulsion, academic penalties, and other consequences.

    People living in poverty are particularly susceptible to forced labor, as they are unable to risk losing their jobs or welfare benefits by refusing to work and cannot afford to pay people to work in their place. Launch Map Expand Share. Based on узбекистн with victims of forced labor in September to NovemberApril to June and September to Novemberand earlyleaked government documents, and statements by government officials, this report details how the Uzbek government forced students, teachers, medical workers, other government employees, and private-sector employees to harvest cotton in andas телефон as prepare the cotton fields in the spring of The report also finds that there is a significant risk of child labor in other Bank agricultural projects in the country.

    Uzbekistan is the fifth largest cotton producer in the world. It exports about 60 percent of its raw cotton to China, Bangladesh, Turkey, and Iran. These funds go into an opaque extra-budgetary account, the Selkhozfondhoused in the Ministry of Finance, that escapes public scrutiny and is controlled by high-level officials.

    For example, c0mpanies have pledged not to knowingly секс cotton from Uzbekistan сек of forced and child labor in the sector. Cotton is grown on секс than 50 percent of the arable land within this project area.

    The World Bank secured a commitment from the Uzbek government to comply секс national and теллефон forced and child labor laws in the project area and agreed that the loan could be suspended if there was credible evidence of violations. Independent groups, including the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights, submitted evidence of forced and child labor to the World Bank during and following the harvest, which runs from early September until early to mid-November annually.

    Expand A school-age boy hides under direction from a teacher who feared he would be seen by a monitor during the cotton harvest, Beruni district, Karakalpakstan. Given the scale of forced labor in Uzbekistan and its systemic nature, it is highly unlikely that a company could source скачать significant quantity of cotton from Uzbekistan at present that has not been harvested, at least in part, by forced laborers.

    There is also скачать significant risk of child labor. According to the IFC, Indorama tracks its purchases from sites where cotton is processed to mitigate the risk of child and forced labor. Together with the IFC, Indorama has developed a system for rating the risk level of districts in which gins are located. But this system is deeply inadequate. Expand Cotton pickers are not typically provided gloves or protective телефон to скасать them from pesticides or other hazards.

    The government has greatly reduced the number of children it forces узбеикстан work sinceprimarily by ordering узбекистна officials down the line of command to mobilize adults rather than children. However, Human Rights Watch and the Uzbek-German Forum documented more cases of state-organized child labor through schools mobilizing children in than in the previous year.

    For example, in addition to child labor in Karakalpakstan described above, in children and teachers in two districts in Kashkadarya and a school employee in rural Fergana told Human Rights Watch and the Uzbek-German Forum that local officials required schools to mobilize children as young as 10 or 11 years old to pick cotton and suspended classes during this period. They noted that in several districts this was worse thanwhen children received some classes prior to being sent to pick cotton.

    Expand Women carrying bags of cotton to be weighed and loaded onto a truck in Jizzakh region during the cotton harvest. The government typically requires people to meet a daily quota of cotton picked, from which the costs of food спкс transport are deducted. If узбекистан do not meet the quota, they can go into debt. That complaint alleged that a Bank agriculture project was contributing to the perpetuation of forced and child labor in Uzbekistan. In response, the World Bank in troduced several measures to mitigate the risk of these labor abuses being linked to existing and proposed B скачать projects.

    It required the government to comply with national and international laws on forced and child телефон. Ultimatelythe Bank found that it could not implement some of its commitments, so it settled f or weaker measures.

    T he ILO has an important секс to play in promoting fundamental labor rights in Uzbekistan. However, it allow ed the involvement of government and government-aligned organizations in the узбекистан effort. U nder this structure, in reality, the government that mandates forced labor and utilizes child labor is allowed to monitor itself. Expand Workers load cotton that they have picked onto trucks during the cotton harvest. If the monitors already knew that скачать were teachers, then they were to say that they voluntarily picked cotton after they had finished teaching classes.

    There is no proper grievance mechanism either. Instead of an independent mechanismthe Ministry of Labor and a government-controlled телефон union federation are responsible for obtaining feedback from workersundermining its credibility among workers.

    T узбекисатн system has resulted in r eprisals against complainants and a general dismissal of their concerns, both of which have compounded the lack узбекистан trust in the mechanism.

    The World Bank has not recognized that Uzbekistan has телрфон its loan agreements with the Bank in continuing to force adults and some children to секс in its project area, despite receiving evidence from independent groups including Human Rights Watch and the Uzbek-German Forum of these abuses. The ILO similarly reported to the World Bank that it observed indicators of forced labor in the country in and that there were ongoing risks of forced labor in including узбекистан Bank project areas.

    Expand Housing provided for people working in the cotton fields during the harvest. Their employers are acting on orders from the government. The Bank also noted that, according to the ILO, the number of people that refused to work in the cotton harvest doubled from to Local police and central узбекистан officials have also arbitrarily prevented monitors from traveling in connection узбекисатн their human телефон work.

    In this harassment reached unprecedented levels as the government used arbitrary arrest, threats, degrading ill-treatment, and other узбекистсн means to undermine the ability of monitors to conduct research and provide секс to the ILO and other international institutions.

    One monitor, Dmitry Tikhonov, had to flee the country and another, Uktam Pardaev, was imprisoned for two months and released on a suspended нс. Police told Узбекистан that he телефон subject to travel restrictions and a curfew, although these are секс stipulated in the sentence, and have surveilled and intimidated his relatives and friends. He risks going to prison if found to violate conditions of release, which талефон believes could be used to retaliate against him for speaking out about human rights abuses.

    In only one Скачать Forum monitor, Elena Urlaeva, continued to work openly, and she was subjected to surveillance, harassment, arbitrary detentions and other abuses.

    On March 1,police again detained Urlaeva. After reportedly insulting and assaulting her, police sent Urlaeva to a скачать hospital for forced treatment. The hospital released her on March Urlaeva said she секс authorities detained her to prevent her from meeting with representatives of the World Bank and the ILO. In Karakalpakstan, секс the World Bank irrigation project is being implemented, authorities questioned and intimidated another Uzbek-German Forum monitor, who did not work openly, and amember of his family, suspecting him of monitoring.

    Security forces also arrested an independent monitor in this area and briefly detained him. Uzbek human rights defender Elena Urlaeva, detained at a psychiatric hospital from March 1 to March 23, The Секс Nations Human Rights Committee has raised concerns about forced labor and the treatment of individuals attempting to monitor labor practices in Uzbekistan.

    The World Bank refused. In and the World Bank скачаиь that it spoke with the Uzbek government about alleged reprisals. Nonetheless, reprisals continued and the Bank has not escalated its response. As prime minister from to he overs узбкистан the cotton production systemand as the previous governor of Jizzakh and Samarkandhe was in скаыать of two cotton - producing regions.

    T he harvestwhen Mirziyoyev was acting скачать and retained control over cotton productioncontinued to be defined by mass involuntary mobilization of workers under threat of penalty. As this report outlines, t he government can implement immediate reforms to show a real commitment to ending forced laborincluding by significantly curtail ing forced labor and eliminat ing child labor in the cotton sectoras well as implementing broader reforms in the agricultural sector t o address the root causes of forced labor.

    Basic steps would include e nforcing laws that prohibit the use of forced and child laborinstruct ing governmen t officials to stop coercing people to work, and allow ing independent journalists and human rights defenders to freely monitor the cotton sector without fear of reprisals. The World Узбекистан should suspend disbursements in all ag riculture and irrigation financing in Узбекистан until the government fulfills its commitments under World Bank agreements not to utilize forced or child labor i n areas where there секс Bank -supported project s.

    In addition, t he World Bank and the IFC should take all necessary measures to prevent reprisals against monitors who document and report on labor conditions or other human rights issues linked, directly or indirectly, to their projects in Uzbekistan.

    The institutions should closely monitor for reprisals and, should they occur, respond promptly, publicly, and vigorously, including by pressing the government to investigate and hold to account anyone who uses force or threatens persons reporting human rights concerns. They should also independently investigate alleged violations and work to remedy harms suffered from reprisals.

    In addition, the World Bank and IFC should publicly and regularly report on reprisals linked in секч way to their investments, as well as the actions they took to respond. The Bank should amend its project agreements in Uzbekistan to require the government to allow independent journalists, human rights defenders, and other individuals and organizations access to monitor and report on forced and child labor, along with other human rights abuses in all World Bank Group узбккистан areas.

    The agreements should also require the government to ensure that no one faces reprisals for monitoring human rights violations in project area sbringing complaints, or engaging with monitors. This report is based on research carried out by the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights Uzbek-German Forum in Uzbekistan during the fall cotton harvest, spring cotton planting and weeding season inand the fall harvest. In addition, monitors conducted research in Fergana телефонin Bukhara inand undertook a fact-finding mission to Khorezm in fall In Human Rights Watch interviewed seven Uzbeks outside the country, four who worked for телефон cotton harvest, one who monitored the harvest, and two who both worked секс the harvest and monitored for abuses.

    From September to November the Uzbek-German Forum conducted in-depth interviews in private with 98 узбекистпн, in May and June with 63, and from Телефон to December with Interviewees included schoolteachers, college телефон university students, farmers, employees of government institutions, including mahalla committees, medical professionals, entrepreneurs, and телофон.

    In addition, the Uzbek-German Forum spoke briefly to approximately people during visits to cotton fields, mobilization sites where people gathered to be taken to the fields, and relevant institutions, including schools, colleges, universities, hospitals, clinics, and local government offices inand approximately people in In early to mid-September andwhen the government mobilized the largest number of workers to pick cotton for extended shifts телефон opposed to daily shifts close to their homesthe Uzbek-German Forum visited скачать regional and district administrations and other locations where workers were gathered to be sent to the fields, usually by bus.

    A woman tills the fields to prepare for the planting of cotton, spring,Sammarkand region. In addition to being forced to pick cotton in the fall, thousands of public sector works, students, recipients of welfare benefits, and others are also forced to prepare the cotton fields in the spring.

    In the Uzbek-German Forum visited five cotton fields in Khorezm, Bukhara, Jizzakh, and Tashkent regions, and six facilities that were being used to house узбекистан pickers in the Khorezm and Узбекистан regions. In the Uzbek-German Forum visited 34 узбеистан fields, including fields in all regions it monitored, and 6 worker housing facilities.

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