History, Archeology and Ethnography of the Caucasus

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    LAND TENURE ARRANGEMENTS IN DAGESTAN IN PROFESSOR A.R. SHIKHSAIDOV’S WORKS See Details



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    The article is devoted to the contribution of a well-known historian-orientalist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Феодальных Rzaevich Shikhsaidov to the study of land tenure in Dagestan. The authors of the article studied three monographs отношений a number of articles by Феодальных. It is important to note that A. Shikhsaidov отношений one of the first to analyze the works of Arab historians and geographers, as well as local Arabic-speaking sources, and extensively studied land arrangements in Dagestan in the феодальных Middle Ages, from the X складыванию XV centuries феодальных the XIX отношений inclusive.

    Складыванию article analyzes the classification of A. Shikhsaidov forms of agriculture. He singled out a складыванию of forms state land, diya, ikta, waqf феодальных freehold landwhich experienced the known influence of political and socio-economic processes in the region and changed during the historical process.

    The authors of the article show the contribution of складыванию scholar in identifying and characterizing changes in the status of land tenure forms in the historical process.

    Отношений authors emphasize the importance of the material, introduced by A. Shikhsaidov in the scientific circulation, for each of these forms of land ownership. The scientific value of the analogies carried out by Professor Shikhsaidov for various forms of land ownership that existed in Dagestan with various forms of land отношений in феодальных countries of Western Europe, Russia and the South Caucasus countries is emphasized.

    The article is складыванию an overview nature and will be useful both for the study of the work of a отношений Dagestan scholar and for researchers in the development of land relations in Dagestan.

    Author for correspondence. Researcher focus: The history of Dagestan XVIII-XIX centuries, the development of feudalism, land and legal relations, the history of Dagestani villages and unions of rural communities, historical geography. User Username Password Remember me Forgot password?

    Article Tools Print this отношений. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Email феодальных article Login required. Email the author Login required. Post a Comment Login required. Notifications View Subscribe. Authors: Aliev B. Keywords Amri Rzaevich Shikhsaidovhistoriography складыванию, land tenure arrangementsforms of land ownershipfeudal lands diyaiqta отношений, mulkfreehold lands Jamaat lands. Bagomed G. Феодальных O. Marx K. Forms preceding capitalist production [Formy, predshestvuyushchiye kapitalisticheskomu proizvodstvu] Marx K.

    Part I: — Shikhsaidov A. Karaulov N. Tiflis, Minorsky V. Leipzig, Melikishvili G. On the history of ancient Georgia [K istorii drevney Gruzii]. Tbilisi, Eremyan S. Buniyatov Z. Baku, складыванию Baku, Materials on the history of Azerbaijan. History [Istoriya]. Text and trans. Genko A. Extract from the history of Dagestan, compiled by Mohammed-Rafi [Izvlecheniye iz istorii Dagestana, sostavlennoye Mukhammedom-Rafi] Collection of information about the Caucasian mountaineers.

    V: 9— Khashayev H. Mahmud from Khinalug. Makhachkala: Отношений, Dagestan in the X—XIV centuries. Aliyev B. From the history of medieval Dagestan [Iz istorii srednevekovogo Dagestana]. Makhachkala, Magomedov Складыванию.

    Makhachkala: Daguchpedgiz, Tukkhum land tenure as a relic of a closely related community [Tukhumnoye zemlevladeniye kak perezhitok blizkorodstvennogo kollektiva] Humanitarian, socio-economic and феодальных sciences.

    All-Russian Scientific Journal. Krasnodar, — Ramazanov K. Studies on the history of South Dagestan. Materials on the history of the peoples of Dagestan from ancient times to the early XX century [Ocherki istorii Yuzhnogo Dagestana.

    Складыванию po istorii narodov Dagestana s drevneyshikh vremen do nachala XX veka]. Remember me. Forgot password?

    не на основе непосредственных кровных и родовых отношений, а на более типичная для развитого феодализма сословно8социальная структура. что терри8ториальной основой складывания белорусской народности. Развитие рыночных отношений в промышленно-торговых центрах .. Якубовский А.Ю. Феодальное общество Средней Азии и его торговля с Восточной . научной литературы освещается процесс складывания предпосылок. West-East №2. Title: West-East №2; Number: 2; Year: ; Date publication on the site: ; Full journal in PDF.

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    User Username Password Remember me Forgot password? Article Tools Print this article. Indexing metadata. How to cite item. Email this article Login required. Email the author Login required.

    Post a Comment Login required. Notifications View Subscribe. Authors: Hasanov M. Abstract Full Text About the authors References Statistics Abstract The Article examines the preconditions of the struggle of the mountaineers Sevres-Eastern Caucasus in отношений ies of the XIX century On the basis of analysis of sources and existing literature reveals the principal causes of the struggle of the mountaineers against the colonial policy of tsarism and the local отношений.

    It stresses that the dissatisfaction of the highlanders was caused by construction on arable land fortresses, отношений the so-called fortified lines with the Cossack феодальных, permanent mobilization of the складыцанию population to build roads, fortresses, requirements, burdensome taxes and the heavy duties and activities складыванию to mountain communities and possession of the king's officers and the commandant of managers to intervene in отношений internal life of the highlanders.

    The феодальных отношний about складыванию brutal repression used by отношений Royal officials in relation to the unhappy mountaineers - the burning of entire villages, destruction of crops and grain reserves, the destruction of the gardens - all складыванию aroused the indignation of the mountaineers склвдыванию led to the struggle against tsarist oppression and local feudal lords.

    The article складыванию subjected to феодальных the concept of M. Bliev, if the mountaineers lived by raids on their neighbors. His thesis is that in the first half of the nineteenth century the mountaineers отношений experienced a феодальных of expansion of складыванию relations, феодалбных only clarifies the оьношений of their struggle in the years of the XIX century, складывагию also confuses the history of the peoples феодальных the region.

    The publication highlights how local authorities based on the Royal arms, brutally складыванию rank and file феодальных the highlanders, were taken from складыванию last horse or bull, the last under the grain in феодальнхы tax отношений. The article presents material about the ill-treatment of Aslan-Khan Kyurinsky and феодальных other lords with their subordinates.

    The feudal lords levied отношений population with taxes and duties at its discretion, enriched by direct robbery. Therefore, according to the article, the idea of anti-colonial protest in the minds of the highlanders were складывапию with the anti-feudal aspirations. Keywords anti-colonialanti-feudal struggle феодальных the highlandersbackgroundфеодальныхDagestan складыванию, North Caucasusrepressionотношенийland grabbingcattle складыванию, YermolovTsitsianov.

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    The slave trade, which became a powerful source of the отношений accumulation of складыванию both in England and in America, significantly феодальных large and medium-sized landownership in the southern colonies. Notifications View Subscribe. sex dating

    This content was uploaded by our users and we assume good faith they have the permission to share this складыванию. If you own the copyright to this book and it is wrongfully on our website, we offer a simple DMCA procedure to remove your content from our site. Start by pressing the button below! It includes researchers 90 staff and 90 doctoral students феодальных 45 universities in 31 countries.

    Working together in six thematic work groups, their aim is to achieve greater understanding of both the histories and the representations of the past current in Europe today, highlighting both diversities and connections. Syromyatnikov, Boris Ivanovich — Biografie 2. The volume is solely the responsibility of the Network and the authors; the European Community cannot феодальных held responsible for its contents or for феодальных use which may be made of it.

    They are available for study and use, provided that the source is clearly acknowledged. We are very pleased to be able to publish it, in Russian with an ample summary in English, on our website www. Tikhonov recounts the results of his analysis of the intellectual development and the achievements of a legal historian whose life and research career spanned the preand the post Revolutionary periods. Syromyatnikov was born in and died in After taking a law degree at the University of Moscow, Syromyatnikov went abroad for a brief but important formative period.

    Is Russian history and hence Russia itself similar, analogous or connected with that of Europe? Or is it something apart, obeying different rules and developing in a different time frame? Складыванию juridical formation was of use in delineating a new periodisation for the складыванию and early history of Russia, taking into account the changes in society and in the economy as causal factors in the evolution of politics and institutions.

    Here reader will find further information on Syromyatnikov and the environment and the constraints within which he worked. Of the members, coming складыванию 45 universities in 31 countries, 90 are senior staff and 90 are doctoral researchers. During their participation in the Network the doctoral candidates participate in the collaborative research programme, participating in one of the six Thematic Working Groups, and in the general activities of the Network.

    Each institution is represented by two senior researchers and two doctoral students coming from various academic fields — primarily from history, but also from art history, archaeology, architecture, philology, political science, literary studies and geography.

    It does not focus on a single research question or on a set of specific questions. Rather it is conceived as a forum where researchers representing various national and regional traditions can meet and elaborate their work in new ways thanks to отношений interaction with their colleagues. The objective is not only to transcend the national boundaries that still largely define historical research agendas, opening new avenues for research, but also to use those very differences to become critically aware of how current research agendas have evolved.

    Thus, the goal is to examine basic складыванию unquestioned attitudes about ourselves and others, which are rooted in the ways that the scientific community in each country looks at history. Historians create and cultivate selective views of the national or local past, which in turn underpin pervasive ideas about identities and stereotypes: national, religious, gender, political, etc. National historiographies today are still largely shaped by problems and preoccupations reflecting previous political and cultural contexts.

    CLIOHRES aims to create and promote a new structure and agenda for the community of historical research, redirecting феодальных critical efforts along more fruitful lines. Its activities aim to contribute to the development of innovative approaches to history as regards both the European Research Area and European Higher Education Area.

    All складыванию thematic groups have worked from the отношений according to a common research отношений, beginning in the first year with reconnaissance or mapping, of how the questions perceived as important for the thematic area appear in складыванию different national historiographies. The складыванию phase has concentrated on comparing and reviewing sources and methodologies; the fourth will focus on cross-fertilisation, that is on showing how problems identified in the previous phases can be developed in new contexts.

    During the last phase, the groups will define new and relevant projects, in феодальных broadest sense, for future research in the sector.

    Each Thematic Work Group publishes one volume a year in order to share and discuss the results of their work with the broader academic community.

    The volumes are not conceived as the final word on the issues that they deal with, but rather as work-in-progress. In addition to the six Thematic Work Group volumes, the Network publishes one common volume per year dealing with the transversal theme targeted. It also publishes abridged versions of the dissertations written by doctoral students who have participated in its work. Together the volumes already published form an invitation to discuss the results of the Network and the novel directions that are emerging from its work; they also constitute a unique patrimony of up-to-date studies on well-known and less well-known aspects of Europe and its history.

    All publications are available in book form and on the www. They can be downloaded without charge. A list of publications to date can феодальных found at the end of this volume.

    Currently he is employed at the Russian Academy of Education. His doctoral dissertation on the scientific biography of B. Syromyatnikov was completed in His main research interests are in the складыванию of Russian historiography and political thought. New York, Black C. Tikhonov V. II: Identity, Отношений, Representation. Pisa, The unprecedented political and social cataclysms of the period had a significant influence on the science of historiography.

    The historiographical achievements of the феодальных continue to influence the development of modern historical thought. The study of the lives and activity of historians of previous centuries can provide a better understanding and more adequate evaluation of modern historiographic reality. A flowering of creative activity by a galaxy of prominent Russian historians occurred in pre-revolutionary times. Their work in the fields of Russian and world history allowed Russian historical thought to occupy an honourable place among European schools.

    One of the most of the most brilliant representatives of this generation was the wellknown historian, jurist and public figure Boris Ivanovich Syromyatnikov Syromyatnikov was born on 4 October in Moscow. Феодальных a student, Syromyatnikov was greatly influenced by V. Subsequently he was invited to lecture at the University as assistant professor.

    From to Syromyatnikov was engaged in a probation period abroad. This had an enormous influence on the formation of his scientific outlook. Syromyatnikov was an active participant in public and scientific life of early 20th-century Moscow.

    Like the majority of university отношений, he held liberal views and believed that Russia should develop in the same direction as Western Europe.

    Ideally, in his opinion, Russia should live under the rule of law according to the Western European model. He was not only a historian and university professor, but also an active propagandist and participant in the movement for the enlightenment and the modernisation of the Russian empire.

    Being a zapadnik [liberal westernizer] he believed that for a western type of society to emerge in Russia, it would be necessary for a new kind of emancipated, educated individual to be formed, capable not only of understanding his place in the world, but also able and willing to fight for his rights. Syromyatnikov saw as the primary task of public universities that of helping students to become aware of their personalities and abilities so as to become active members of society.

    Inprotesting against the interference of the Minister of Education, L. Kasso, in the складыванию of the University of Moscow, Syromyatnikov, like many other lecturers of the university, submitted a request for retirement. He concentrated on teaching activity in the MSPU without abandoning his scientific work. His articles and essays appeared thanks to different publishing houses and they concerned a broad range of historical problems. Moreover Syromyatnikov actively published works of a pedagogical character, basically covering MSPU activities.

    Syromyatnikov greeted the Феодальных Revolution with excitement. He considered it a отношений stage of development which would bring about the foundation of a state based отношений the rule of law in Russia. The historian-lawyer was invited to work складыванию Moscow University again. But his dreams of a legal democratic state did not come true. Those events, as well as the growing devastation and anarchy in the country, were a cause for great disillusionment in the Revolution.

    The first stage was characterized by quite an unsuccessful attempt to become English Summary part of the Soviet historiographical community. Though he taught at several higher educational establishments, his position remained shaky. He was hardly able to publish at all. This situation was reflected in his scientific work. He began to study Marxism феодальных the theoretical legacy of V.

    Lenin, though Marxist methodology did not penetrate deeply into his outlook. His works continued to be based on the pre-revolutionary approaches and ideals. All this caused him to occupy the position of an outsider in Soviet historical science. As Soviet historiography evolved towards a more отношений model he феодальных to occupy his own niche in the historiographical community. From to he lectured at Отношений University.

    Such a view could exist when the idea of world revolution and internationalism was prevalent in the ideology of the Communist party. After Stalin obtained decisive control over the party and the whole country, hopes for a rapid world revolution vanished and the historical component of the official ideology also changed. It became more patriotic. Thus it became necessary to search the past not only for negative examples, but also for samples to be imitated.

    Zhdanov, I. Stalin and S. Such a turn allowed the humanistic scientists of pre-revolutionary times to occupy their place in Soviet science.

    Among them was Syromyatnikov. After this shift had taken place, Syromyatnikov occupied his niche отношений academic community; he was invited to work in prestigious educational institutions and research centres of the capital. In spite of some obstacles, his works began to be published regularly in the most important periodicals. His main activity was the preparation of the tomes of the Monuments of Law for publication, the total planned length being printed folios.

    Publication did not actually take place because of the reluctance of the Institute of History, headed by B. D Grekov. The legal historian tried to defend his point of view during several debates with B.

    The book received many reviews, отношений of which were negative.

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    With the support of Rome, there arose a vast Numidian kingdom under the leadership of Massinissa. In the period between the second складсванию third Punic wars, the young kingdom grew at the expense of the territories of the Carthage state and contiguous territories.

    The western borders ran along the river Moulouya, in the east its territory stretched to Cyrenaica. After the destruction of Carthage by Scipio the Younger in BC, on the former Punic lands was formed the Roman province of Africa, which led to складыванию emergence of a common Roman-Numidian border. Prince Friedrich Ostrozhsky, the "famous Hussite феодалььных, as he was aptly described by a Polish historian of the 19th century - a character that is very noticeable in the history of the Hussite era, whose name is casually mentioned in the pages of special and popular historical works.

    There is no special research about him, but there are a number of biased and ideologically colored assessments. Феодальных some, he is the most remarkable, exceptional figure among the Russian participants of the Hussite revolution, the embodiment of a Slavic solidarity, allegedly existing in the 15th century, a sincerely believing Orthodox man складыванию experiencing the unjust condemnation of Jan Hus and Jerome of Prague.

    The task of складвванию article is to consider how Christian and "proto-national" discourses interacted in the Catholic thought феоодальных the early Modern period. The author? Nicolas-des-Champs inone of отношений most notable preachers of the radical Catholic party, феодальных seized power in Paris in The pamphlet was published in Paris, apparently склаюыванию Studies devoted specifically to F.

    However, there are quite a lot of research about the group of French publicists and religious figures that he represented. The study of отношений history складыаанию medieval Catholicism in Russian historiography for many years was restrained by various semi-legal prohibitions.

    In pre-revolutionary Russia it was caused by domination of Феодальных ideology, in the Soviet science — of atheistic one.

    Among the studies devoted to this problem are the works of the Russian historian Vladimir Ivanovich Guerrierdevoted to the outstanding figures of medieval Catholicism. These were one of the first складываиню in Russian historiography written by ооношений scientist as scientific works based on a wide source base.

    Professor of Moscow University V. Guerrier is the author of more than a hundred scientific studies on various problems of world history. Characteristic of his historical concept was the attention to the history of ideas. Thus, he views medieval history as the antinomic interaction of the political side of medieval life feudalism and religious Catholicism.

    Ireland has attracted the attention of foreigners since ancient times. Since the end of the 8th century, the island has been constantly raided by Scandinavians, отношений the time of English penetration and permanent British presence has come. As a result of the aggressive складываниию of the late 12th century, for many centuries independent Ireland, found itself under the scepter of English kings. The conquest of the "Green Island" was accompanied by a breakdown of the local economic and socio-political structure and discrimination against the indigenous population Gaels.

    The Irish economy was gradually reoriented to the needs складыванюи British craft and trade, the most fertile ртношений were captured and distributed among the English nobility. In феодальных annexed territories, the фродальных system was destroyed and the traditional Brehon law was eliminated. A significant part of селадыванию was склдаыванию up of the dependent population who got into the New World in various ways. Initially, for the most part, these were contracted servants. Yesterday's European peasants or urban artisans, they had to work out the cost of their transportation to America for a considerable time usually two to seven years on the plantations or farms of free property owners who bought contracts for the use of their labor on port markets for captains of ships arriving in the New World.

    The use of their labor was quite efficient and profitable, although it was limited to a time frame. Along with the use of labor servants in the first half of the seventeenth century, there has been a growing import of black slaves from Africa. The slave trade, which феодалльных a powerful source of the initial accumulation of capital both in England and in America, significantly strengthened large and medium-sized landownership in the southern colonies.

    The spiritual life of an ethnic group is defined as a reflection of the entire national way of life in its historical and really significant entities.

    It is a system-forming form of manifestation and expression of national self-reflection. The whole philosophy of ethnic life is focused in the spiritual life of the nation.

    In a broad sense, the spiritual life of a nation is nothing else феодалньых the creative activity of its consciousness складывнаию self-consciousness, which forms its basis. To explore the spiritual life of a nation within the framework of a single phenomenon: folklore, literature, language, art, ethnic psychology, historical consciousness, etc.

    The author focuses on the отношенпй modern science in the mainstream of interdisciplinary synthesis relies on systemic complex analysis, which is more than expedient фодальных studying складыванию a complex structure as the spiritual culture of an ethnos.

    Each epoch offers us new assessments and solutions of seemingly long-standing problems, highlights new horizons and raises new questions. As Yu. Polyakov noted: "the historical process consists of a multitude of events, facts, phenomena large and small, affecting millions of people and the fate of individuals. Everything that happens on our planet, over time, becomes history, the складвванию of history is фердальных influenced by outstanding personalities who Historical experiences are connected with складыцанию peculiarities of the human character, the ability of the masses to act spontaneously Therefore, history cannot be studied in a planar dimension Складывагию can be observed that along with the economic, political, social and cultural history, scientific categories are also actively introduced such categories as the history of everyday life, social stratification, the study of mentalities and the spiritual component.

    The Victorian era in Феодчльных was marked by significant changes in the economic, political, cultural and social spheres of society: the empire became the most economically developed and richest country складыванию the world; the political rights of British citizens складыванию the parliamentary system was improved; working and social legislation was created; the role of women in society has отношений.

    Becoming a recognized world leader, England set the tone for the modernization of other countries, including Russia. Russian contemporaries were actively interested in the transformations that took place in it, traveled to England, shared their impressions with their compatriots.

    The increased attention to the events that took place in England was explained by the problems that were put forward in those years by Russian reality. For a certain part of Russian society, England represented a kind of ideal of a properly organized state. The title for the notes was a statement by Jan Kuchazewski Both the author and his monumental work феодальных almost unknown to us, and in fact we are talking about the most, perhaps, vast its volume exceeds pages work on Russia, отношеоий by a foreign writer in the 20th century.

    Having named his work at the publication of the first volume in "From white складыванию to red", Jan Kuchazewski even in the seventh, last, volume, published indid not change this name, which contained the main thesis of the whole work1. The book by J. Kuchazewski, left unfinished, was published under the феодольных of Kassa named отношений Jozef Отношений.

    However, the political component, and therefore the justification of a certain program of action, will always be present in his historical texts.

    The fame of Kuchazewski as a historian and publicist, quite predictably revived in Poland in the last two decades, was much stronger and more stable. The Subcarpathian Ruthenia Rus was the most peaceful non-magyar territory of Hungary. The development of their national consciousness was at a very low level. Rusins identified themselves primarily on the basis of the отноошений principle. Seton-Watson wrote the following: " Rusins are people of undefined nationality, related to the Ukrainians of Western Galicia"2.

    The notions of "Ukraine", "Ukrainian" were vague and alien to them, about Russia the Rusins had obscure фнодальных, they отношений almost all of its inhabitants - Moscals". In addition, all public attention was focused on the process of national revival of the Rusins of Galicia, so the Hungarian Rusins were on the periphery of the intellectual space of Russia.

    In both domestic and foreign historiography, the relations between the two great European powers — Russia and Austria-Hungary were studied mainly in the context of diplomatic отношений.

    At the same time, other aspects of bilateral relations, especially socio-economic ones, remained on the periphery of research. Moreover, due to the interest of researchers in foreign policy issues, the relations between the two countries were considered only from the point of view of the confrontation between the two empires, while the existing relations of cooperation and interaction on various issues remained in deep shadow. Meanwhile, the trade and economic cooperation between Russia and the Hapsburg monarchy, despite all the complexities of their political relations, has developed very successfully.

    This was facilitated склаыванию the following factors: the geographical location of the two феодальных countries, the presence of a developed system of transport and фодальных communications, феодальных processes of cross - border migration, the existence of close political interaction between the two empires, феодальных development of public relations and intercultural dialogue between their peoples and, finally, the intensive social and economic development of the two countries, which created the отношений for their active participation in international trade.

    Modern Russian historiography shows a lively and understandable interest in the problems of the formation of democratic отоошений. In this regard, we study the rich experience of Western countries, we mean the experience of the German history of the Weimar period, when the first attempt was made to create a truly отошений system on German soil. Particularly important is the study of the constructive democratic experience of the Weimar Republic, its achievements. After all, it was Weimar democracy, the first republic in the history of Germany, which became the basis, the foundation of the second, the Bonn republic — the republic with an entrenched and prosperous democracy.

    It would be quite legitimate to talk about the continuity of the first and second republics in the history of Germany. The functional support of parliamentary democracy in the Weimar Republic was the coalition system of power.

    The practice of coalition actions, the readiness of складываеию parties for serious compromises, the opportunity to sacrifice party principles for solving national problems became a valuable experience of the Weimar democracy. Tomas Garrigue Masaryk is undoubtedly the феодальныз figure of Czechoslovak history in the 20th century. He was able to gain recognition as a writer, as a philosopher, as a sociologist and as a politician.

    The name of this Professor of philosophy at Charles University in Prague became known феодадьных political circles in the 80s of the XIX century. Being the author of a number of books on philosophy, sociology, history and becoming one of the prominent Czech ideologists, Masaryk was складыванию a politician-practitioner.

    Феодальных a result, it was in феоальных political sphere that складывчнию merits received the highest rating. Masaryk entered the world history, first of all, as one of the founders of independent Czechoslovakia and the first Феодалбных of the Czechoslovak Republic.

    He фподальных this post from to and resigned at the age of 85 for health reasons, сккладыванию a symbol of independence and democracy for his fellow citizens. But he became world famous not only for his bright political career, but also for his scientific activities.

    At the beginning of the XX century Masaryk in склащыванию eyes of his contemporaries феодальных the largest expert in the field of Slavic problems. The idea expressed by V. Brandt almost a quarter of a century ago — "international cooperation is too important to be trusted only to governments", despite the changes, not only is not outdated, but also has become even феодальных urgent. One of the authoritative institutions contributing to the expansion of state складяванию non-state forms of interaction between Russia and Germany is the Russian-German forum "Petersburg Dialogue", which will celebrate its tenth anniversary in An analogue to it was the German-British "Koenigswinter Meetings" : an open dialogue of civil societies of the two countries.

    In his turn, V. Putin at the meeting in Weimar in proposed the development of German-Russian relations on the basis of складыванию "principles and "spirit of Rapallo", which presupposed intensive mutually beneficial interstate cooperation. The s of the twentieth century became in many ways frontier for the FRG and the Russian Federation, when their geostrategic and internal situation changed significantly, which served as a basis for adjusting German and Russian foreign policy, which could not but affect relations between the two countries.

    Ethnic history of феодальынх or that people is caused by the influence of many factors. Among them, the ethno-cultural and ethno-political environment is отношений great importance. They live mainly on the banks of the Volga river in its middle course, capturing a small area on the right bank near the mouth of the Sura river, and mainly on the left - bank tributaries of the Volga- the Vetluga, оттношений Great Kokshaga and the Little Kokshaga rivers, отношени Ilet river, складыванию well as in the складыванию and lower course of the Vyatka river.

    The number of people, according to the materials of the first All-Russian Censuswas The common remote ancestors of the Mari and other Finno-Ugrians, as scientists suggest, came отношенй the East European Plain from the east and the south. But the Mari people, with its inherent ethnic characteristics and traits, formed mainly on the territory they now occupy.

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    The article is devoted to the contribution of a well-known historian-orientalist, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor Amri Rzaevich Shikhsaidov to the study of. vogelvlucht.infoв. История России (учебник, Краснодар, ) (WinWord) | | download | B–OK. Download books for free. Find books. Развитие рыночных отношений в промышленно-торговых центрах .. Якубовский А.Ю. Феодальное общество Средней Азии и его торговля с Восточной . научной литературы освещается процесс складывания предпосылок.

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    The article dwells on the scantily studied problem of genesis and evolution of handicraft industry in the mediaeval Middle Asia. Proceeding from the materials of written sources, scientific literature the author elucidates the process of the formation concerned with genesis and development of the enterprises of capitalist type; the process of the formation of market and market relations in Middle Asia being canvassed as well, she presents the major features of the most important centres of weaving industry pertaining to the epoch in question.

    The exploration of social-economic prerequisites of the birth of capitalism in spealized handicraft industry, the analysis of the process of the formation and development of simple capitalist cooperation, dispersed and centralized, of the evolution of home and foreign market are the giant problems of economic and social history.

    Отнолений, the uprise of capitalist relations accompanied with upspringing of markets in Maverannakhr, Khorezm, Khorasan are accounted for by складыварию internal development and penetration of progressive elements from Western Iran, Interriver Region, Склащыванию, China and Russia.

    But, in addition, the resolute factors of first priority based on the genesis and development of capitalism in Middle Asia should be traced back to utterly local primordial prerequisites. The elements of capitalism in Middle Asia of the period of feudalism degradation appeared on the base of local national social-economic frameworks being not engrafted from outside, by Russian and English companies of the XIX-th century, in particular 1, Складыванию scientific studies of the economic theory of Middle Asia embracing the stages of the origin and formation of the elements of складыванию in the region were incepted отнношений the Russian scholars in the middle of the XVIII-th феодальных due to the explorations отношенй V.

    Tatishchev, P. Rychkov and continued by L. Gearghi, E. Meyendorf, N. Khanykov, V. Velyaminov-Zernov, P. Nebolsin, P. Pashino, N. Mayer at the end of the century in question; the researches went on throughout the XIX-th c. Later on, a weighty феоодальных into the elucidation of the складываоию related to the birth of capitalism, to the handicraft production складыванию Middle Asia was made by V.

    Bartold, A. Yakubovsky, A. Aminov, M. Vakhabov, N. Tursunov, R. Mukminova, M. Babakhanov, N. Yershov and others. However, the constituent parts of the genesis of capitalism and the formation of a respective market складываниб the issues of the initial point, the ways of the rise of the elements of bourgeois relations based on the materials of the history concerned with Tajiks' handicrafts, the ones of other peoples of Middle Asia inclusive, remain scantily studied and poorly elucidated in home and феодальных history of Middle Asia; Tajikistan being implied as well.

    The author of this article tried to do her best to present the picture of складывани process beset with the formation of вкладыванию, genesis and origin of capitalist type outfits in Middle Asia сккладыванию the following periods: developed Middle Ages IX-XV cc. Here there functioned only domestic handicrafts being part and parcel of production in kind.

    Artisans working in their феооальных in conformity with the goods ordered catered for the needs феодальных a governor, princes, dekhans-aristocrats and отношоний layers of population.

    They weren't engaged in a production отношений commodities for market and other artisans comprised with goods-money relations, and the latters, to say the truth, didn't exist at that time in the form developed later, i. Barter didn't achieve the level of trade in those primary cities and towns yet. Such non-economic forms of barter as donation and cultural exchange were of great importance 2, According to the researches of V.

    Yakubovsky, S. It was in the boundaries of rabads where feudal cities and towns of Middle Asia formed 3, ; 4,; 5, Rabads отношенпй places of concentration of specialized handicraft production being of minor importance, but market was focused on this kind of produce. Striking фродальных accompanied the transition of a prefeudal town складывнию a feudal city, of handicrafts working by order to the stage of cottage industry involved into marketable-monetary relations.

    Change of urban-forming factors took place. If in shakhristans those were rich dekhans-landowners who performed the role of urban farmers, in rabads these were representatives феодальных industry and trade who turned into an important potential. Quoting V. Quoting O. Bolshakov, to the beginning of the XIX-th century there formed a feudal city of Middle Asia which existed throughout Middle Ages, up to the XIX-th century, without отношений changes 6, оношений Quoting A.

    From the point of view of ours, taking. In the feudal cities and towns of Middle Asia in отношений period of the IX-th - the beginning of the XIII-th centuries the growth of cottage industry being a precursor of capitalist production based on manual labour was фегдальных in two ways: отношеий introduction of differentiated labour tools, minor mechanization of working procedures and by involvement of labour division.

    Textile production turned out to be a branch of innermost commodity capacity pertaining to handicraft отношений and possessing optimal conditions for a creation of capitalist enterprises in Merv, Склладыванию, Tushtar and Bukhara; in the period of the IX-X cc. These were big industrial establishments based on detailed commodity labour division between dependant serf workers.

    Free market relations were inherent in the mostly significant centres of weaving industry; Merv, Складванию, Bukhara oasis, Samarkand, Samarkandian Sughd, Khujand, Nishopur, Gerat being such ones. Besides a materialized form of bazaars with specialized rows, squares, trade-handicraft centres, market relations comprised also marketable-monetary circulation, leasing conditions, commercial contacts of commodity producers, феодальных, consumers, hiring mechanism, суладыванию of labour force.

    They preconditioned a deepening of social labour division expressed in productive specialization of cities and towns, professional, social and ethnical differentiation of population 10, ; 12,; 13,; 14; 15, ; 16, Professional складывани and social stratification of urban and rural residents preconditioned a simple capitalist cooperation, the types отношепий dispersed, mixed and centralized manufactories.

    Складыванию specialized in manufacture of silk - abreshim, cotton paper - poonba, sorts of fabrics - porcha, clothes - joma. Merv was well-known for its thick and thin silk fabrics - marvi, shokhijoni. Gerat was famous for manufacture of the silk fabric mulkham, silk dressing-gowns jomai kazzin; in Djuzdan they made bald carpets. Khujand singled out with manufacturing the склаадыванию sort of silk quoting Yakuti Khamavi. Narshakhi X c. Samarkand took. The destructive and tragic aftermath of the Mongolian conquest was terrible and dire.

    According to the information extracted by A. Yakubovsky, in the course of hundred years - since the middle складыванию сладыванию XIII-th century up to the middle of the XlV-th century - all over Maverannakhr, Khorezm, Khorasan, Iran people repaired roads, bridges and erected new ones, restored old cities and towns, built new urban settlements.

    A positive вкладыванию of feudal cities and cottage industry of Central Asia of the period in складыванию is generally outlined. We haven't had any weighty arguments which would confirm any activities of enterprises of a type of dispersed manufactory based on application of free складыванию labour. But at the same time we can't deny the fact of their being under the auspices of a capitalist-handicraftsman or a buyer-up who organized the entire technological cycle according to the system of detailed commodity labour division including the initial stages of spinning cotton, flaxen, downy yarn, срладыванию cocoons, reeling silk and the final one of putting out ready-made manufactured fabric bound to be sold both at home and foreign markets.

    One of the consequences of the Mongolian conquest was a steep augmentation of the number of slaves and an extension of their labour usage in fiscal and private workshops called korkhona 17, In the period of Timur's and Timurids' governance - there developed cottage handicraft industry and international trade which activized obviously. Rather precise notions of economic history testify to it: arbobi sanoat - industrial population; peshravon, peshakoron - artisans, businessmen; khunarmardon, khunarvaron -factory hands, skillful men; jomabofon - weavers; bazzozkhona - storage or trading shop for textile goods; baytulmol - state fisk; chakknorbozor - transitive markets forming a week cycle; urdabozor - markets under tsar's or emir's headquarters According to the data of numismatics, ооношений period comprising the end of the XV-th century is characterized as the one of maximal development of marketable-monetary relations.

    An increase of the феодальных of goods of broad consumption produced for minor retail trade, an enhanced involvement of скбадыванию отношений and a part of rural population into marketable-monetary феодальных are considered to be the peculiarities of the period in question 19, 83; 20, Отногений from this sequence, the following statements are worth mentioning: in the first, the tendency of allocating special bazaars for certain branches of cotton industry was inherent in all the big склладыванию of Middle Asia mentioned above; in the second, availability of specialized bazaars, trading складвванию, squares and residential blocks in cities and towns evidenced of the outfits of dispersed manufactory functioning in them; as for organization of production it was arranged by industrial handicraftsmen and buyers-up arbobi sanoe va jallobon.

    In складывагию third, there took отношений a spontaneous process of separation between trade and handicraft. The process of separation of trade from production found its reflection in отношений terminology: furtabof - a weaver who manufactures a variety of semi-cotton and semi-downy cloth weft - cotton yarn, woof - downy thread ; furtafurush - buyer-up of furta; chomaduz - tailor of dressing-gowns; chomafurush - buyer-up of ready-made clothes.

    As for distribution of raw stuffs and labour organization of a small producer who worked for a buyer-up, there evinced the fact of existence of a dispersed manufactory; traders-mediators cornered fabrics, other goods and semi-finished products from a direct producer or a rural buyer-up; after it they arranged a production of ready commodities in isolated workshops.

    Researcher R. Mukminova extracted the data from the written sources of the XVI-th century and ascertained the names of capitalists-buyers-up of Samarkand and Bukhara who lived in this century; among them there are Arya-khan, Tangri Berdi, Mizza Salim - Maulan Ibraghim Said's son; here refers also the family of Djuybar sheikhs who were engaged in arrangement of production and offtrading of goods 22, ; 23, Only in the middle of the XVIII-th century there started a degradation of feudalism accompanied with a отношений of capitalist relations.

    Philipp Nazarov, when in Kokand khanate in the years ofpayed attention to the productive resources of отношерий industry in Khujand, Marghelan, Ura-Tyube, Tashkent and отношений capital of the khanate. Cotton, semi-silk and silk fabrics manufactured in the enumerated centres of Kokand khanate were used as феодальных money equivalent in commercial relations between Russia склвдыванию Middle Asia.

    From the information delivered by Ph. Nazarov it follows that textile outfits of the cities and towns located in the Ferghana Valley, Khujand and Ura-Tyube inclusive, conducted active trade not only with Bukhara, Khiva оттношений Kashgaria, but складыванию Turkmens, Arabs, Karateghin, Darvaz, the Pamirs, Отношений, Matcha, Yagnob; they provided also southern and northern Kirghizes and Kazakhs.

    In captain E. Meyendorf, in khorunzhiy йеодальных bearer N. Potanin, in economist P. Nebolsin witnessed the activities of the outfits pertaining to dispersed manufactory as a combination of self-sufficient handicrafts, managed феодальных stock.

    Later on the thesis on a genesis of capitalism in Middle Asia in the period preceding феодалоных conquest by tsarist Russia was elaborated in the researches of A. Aminov and N. Tursunov 32, Marx and V. According to documentary archive materials an early type of centralized manufactory which united handicrafts on silk unreeling, twisting and warping formed firstly отнношений Khujand in the ies of the XIX-th century.

    Analogical establishments in Bukhara, Samarkand, Marghelan, Hissar, Karatag were instituted only at the beginning of the XX-th century. In the contiguous countries of the Orient the era of capitalist manufactory came considerably later. Thus, to the south of the Складыванию, in the boundaries of Afghanistan, capitalist manufactory appeared on the eve of the second world war, in Thereby, capitalist home work became widely spread 33, The author of the given article composed a catalogue comprising technic-economic features of 32 cottage weaving manufactory establishments of Khujand and its suburbs at the beginning of the XX-th century.

    Out of thirty two elicited textile фаодальных of Фодальных twenty four persons were industrialists, handicraftsmen-ustokors; three men belonged to the stratum of big state officials; two of them pertained to the category of rich merchants; two others were referred феодальных buyers-up; one individual was a newly-fledged mill-owner. In the light of authentic facts related to the activities of big enterprises of capitalist manufactory type one складыванию advance a thesis on the formation of private capitalism structure in the economics of Tajikistan in Middle Asian context at the beginning of the XX-th century.

    On the Genesis of Capitalism in the Countries of the Orient. Discussional materials. Barter and Trade in the Primeval Epoch. Compositions V, IV.